Sirenomelia, aka Mermaid Syndrome.
Cross-section of human heart, displaying heart valves, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles
Have you ever heard the expression “Tugging on your heart-strings”? Well, it’s not completely metaphorical, at least in terminology. There are literally parts of your heart known colloquially as “heart strings”, which have been described in an anatomical sense as far back as Vesalius.
These “heart strings” are more properly called chordae tendineae. You can see them in the illustration, looking like thin wires or netting within the ventricles. They start at the atrioventricular heart valves (the bicuspid or mitral and the tricuspid), and connect to the papillary muscles near the apex of the heart. The collagenous structure of these strings imparts to them a high level of strength, and the papillary muscles combined with some elastin give a high level of flexibility. they’re what keep your heart valves from everting (prolapsing) when the blood moves from the atria to the ventricles.
See, the valves have no muscular structure of their own, but work because the pressure of the blood pushing against them makes them open and close taut. But if the chordae tendineae weren’t there, that same pressure that makes sure they shut well also means that their fibrous structure would end up simply turning inside-out, and the blood would flow back into the atria, instead of to the lungs or the rest of the body. Insufficiency of the heart strings is one of many possible causes of mitral prolapse and valve insufficiency (leaky valves).
Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1900.
An H&E stained section of epididymis, showing the basement membrane connective tissue and pseudostratified epithelium. You can see stereocilia protruding into the lumen where the sperm are.
Thrombocytopaenia with Absent Radius (TAR) Syndrome
- genetic disorder characterised by severely low platelet count and absent radius bone
Compartment syndrome after foot was run over by a mining drill. Compartment syndrome is a serious condition that involves increased pressure in a muscle compartment. It can lead to muscle and nerve damage and problems with blood flow.Swelling that leads to compartment syndrome occurs from trauma such as a car accident or crush injury, or surgery. Swelling can also be caused by complex fractures or soft tissue injuries due to trauma. Compartment syndrome is most common in the lower leg and forearm, although it can also occur in the hand, foot, thigh, and upper arm.
I have seen a couple cases in the hand after meth injections gone wrong. Bad news bears. Again, don’t do drugs kids.
FINALLY. Something good to reblog.
Now who knows the MOI?
Looks like some kind of power tool or something did it.
Its way too clean of a cut for anything else.
Ewwww, but so cool!
The meniscus is a wedge-shaped piece of cartilage which acts as a “shock absorber” between the thighbone and shinbone in the knee joint. In a recent novel study, which involved 55 patients who underwent surgery to remove all or part of a torn meniscus, 36 of the patients were treated with either a low-dose (50 million stem cells) or a high-dose (100 million stem cells) injection within seven to ten days after the surgery. They were then assessed to evaluate safety, meniscus regeneration through MRI and X-ray images, overall condition and clinical outcomes through two years. They found that:
-There was no abnormal tissue formation or “clinically important” safety issues identified.
-There was “significantly increased meniscal volume” in 24% of the patients in the low-dose injection group (A) and 6% of the high-dose injection group (B) at one year. There was no statistical increase in meniscal volume at two years. In the control group, no patients met the 15% threshold for increased meniscal volume.
-Patients with osteoarthritis experienced a reduction in pain in the stem cell treatment groups; there was no reduction in pain in the control (non-MSC group).
Press release: http://bit.ly/1dN5JSW
Image: Wikimedia Commons
Music to my mum’s ears!
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