Sir, I think you have a splinter, the nurse will be in with tweezers.
What happened sir… I fell on it.
No it fell on me.
A Broken ankle also called an ankle fracture, describes one or more of the bones that make up the ankle joint are broken. Simply put, the more bones that are broken, the more unstable the ankle becomes. There may be ligaments damaged as well. The ligaments of the ankle hold the ankle bones and joint in position.
What? That looks fine to me. Walk it off!
I actually went damn out loud
Transplant surgeons at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have successfully used a new technique that repairs damaged donated lungs that would have been unusable, allowing for successful transplantation of the reconditioned lungs into a patient. Known as ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), the new technique is applied to donor lungs outside of the body before transplantation with the goal of improving recovery practices and expanding the pool of organs available for patients in need of lung transplantation.
Chronic lung disease affects 35 million Americans, results in 400,000 deaths, and causes a public health burden exceeding $150 billion each year. Lung transplantation is the only life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease, however, the procedure has limited availability because not all donor lungs are safe for transplantation. This shortage of donor lungs results in the death of 20 percent of lung transplant candidates awaiting transplant.
Damn this is cool
A coronary stent is a small tube (typically of metal framework) placed in the coronary arteries that supply the heart, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary heart disease. It is used in a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Stents reduce chest pain and have been shown to improve survivability in the event of an acute myocardial infarction. Similar stents and procedures are used in non-coronary vessels e.g. in the legs in peripheral artery disease.
However, as the stent is a foreign object (not native to the body), it incites an immune response. This may cause scar tissue (cell proliferation) to rapidly grow over the stent. In addition, there is a strong tendency for clots to form at the site where the stent damages the arterial wall. Since platelets are involved in the clotting process, patients must take dual antiplatelet therapy afterwards, usually clopidogrel and aspirin for one year and aspirin indefinitely. In order to reduce the treatment, a new generation of stent has been developed with biodegradable polymer.However, the dual antiplatelet therapy may be insufficient to fully prevent clots that may result in stent thrombosis; these and the cell proliferation may cause the standard (“bare-metal”) stents to become blocked (restenosis). Drug-eluting stents were designed to lessen this problem; by releasing an antiproliferative drug (drugs typically used against cancer or as immunosuppressants), they can help avoid this in-stent restenosis (re-narrowing).
What is encephalitis?
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. There are many types of encephalitis, most of which are caused by infections. Most often these infections are caused by viruses. In addition to infections, encephalitis can also be caused by certain diseases that result in an inflammation of the brain.
LEFT: This is an image of the brain with bacterial meningitis, note that the usually delicate and transparent arachnoid space is filled with a yellowish exudates.
RIGHT: Microscopic examination of this space shows that it is filled with white blood cells and tissue debris. The arrow head marks the pial surface and the arrow labels the subjacent cerebral cortex.
Necrotic Fasciitis (NF)
NF is a rare bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin this bacteria attacks the soft tissue and the fascia, which is a sheath of tissue covering the muscle. NF can occur in an extremity following a minor trauma, or after some other type of opportunity for the bacteria to enter the body such as surgery. In order for someone to contract NF, the bacteria must be introduced into the body. This occurs either from direct contact with someone carrying the bacteria, or because of the bacteria being carried by the person him or herself. Although NF is quickly progressing, having greater risk of developing in the immunocompromised (A person who has an immunodeficiency of any kind) due to conditions like diabetes, cancer, etc. anyone is still at risk, no matter what race, gender, or age.
NF causes excruciating pain, dangerously low blood pressure, confusion, high fever, and severe dehydration due to the toxins poisoning the body. Unfortunately, NF sometimes occurs beneath the skin with few symptoms to explain the victim’s symptoms. This results in a great many cases of misdiagnosis
Furthermore, patients with NF typically have a fever and appear very ill. NF is known as “flesh-eating bacteria” because essentially, this is what the bacteria appears to do. It gets into the body, quickly reproduces, and gives off toxins and enzymes that destroy the soft tissue and fascia, which quickly becomes gangrenous (dead). If it is detected during the early stages this gangrenous tissue must be surgically removed to save the life of the patient. The bacteria usually does not attack muscle or bone (although it can happen). In more advanced cases (and this is often) major limb amputation is necessary. Also, the bacteria stealthily hides itself from the body’s innate immune system, allowing it to spread rapidly along tissue planes. Mortality rates have been noted as high as 73% if left untreated. Without surgery and medical assistance, such as antibiotics, the infection will rapidly progress and will eventually lead to death.
Opioids: mechanism of action
Proposed model for opioid receptor-mediated analgesia at peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons. Activation of opioid receptors by endogenous or exogenous opioid agonists promotes G-protein coupling. Opioid receptor-coupled G-proteins directly activate inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK+), inhibit voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, and inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC). Opioid receptors indirectly activate phospholipase C (PLC), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels by utilizing other intermediary messenger systems.
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